I’m willing to bet that many of us, regardless of whether we are male or female, if we love shooting today and grew up exposed to the proper way to handle firearms as a kid, we have a father to thank for introducing us to the sport. Whether it was an early foray into the woods to hunt, a visit to a range or simply plinking cans and paper targets in an open country field, a love for recreational shooting remains a tradition largely handed down from generation to generation (though there are increasingly more avenues new shooters are coming into the fold.)
My first exposure, beyond watching Dad return from his hunting trips in nearby Suffolk, Va., and sit at the dining room table cleaning and oiling his shotgun, came when I finally got to join him on a late-season squirrel hunt. The day was not particularly cold, but it was gray and drizzly. I remember tromping behind him in my rubber boots as we eased from spot to spot in search of gray squirrels, often sitting for spells as we searched the trees with our eyes. I remember him picking me up, long gun in one hand, me in the other, to carry me over the swampy land’s areas of nearly knee-deep water. As I got tired, I remember laying my head on his shoulder, his face warm and whiskers rough against my cheek and neck.
I don’t even remember if we got anything that day (given my later experiences taking my own children hunting, I doubt it), but what I do remember is seeing a few of the small critters dashing away from us by ground or tree. It was enough to stoke my excitement and keep me searching. I also remember how special it felt, just him and me, sitting inside the hunt club, eating Vienna sausages and beans and franks straight from the cans. I also remember getting to shoot both his .22 lever-action rifle and an old Stevens break-open .410. It was my first time pulling the trigger on a firearm, and I knew I couldn’t wait to join him again.
It set my life on a trajectory that has been filled with an abundance of thrilling hunting adventures and exciting times on the range. It even ultimately shaped my career and continues to serve as an activity through which my family strengthens its bonds through a shared love for the outdoors and shooting.
Remember your dad this Father’s Day with an extra special thank you if he introduced you to shooting and hunting in an effort to share his own love for the sports. In fact, do him one better and take him to the range where you can share some time behind the gun together. If you didn’t learn to shoot from your dad, maybe now is a great time to introduce the sport to him!
This entry was posted on June 17, 2016 by Doug Howlett.
Memorial DayFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see Memorial Day (disambiguation).
The gravestones at Arlington National Cemetery are decorated by U.S. flags on Memorial Day weekend in 2008.
Official nameMemorial Day
Observed byUnited States
ObservancesRemembrance of American war dead
DateLast Monday in May
2016 dateMay 30
2017 dateMay 29
2018 dateMay 28
2019 dateMay 27
FrequencyAnnualMemorial Day is a federal holiday in the United States for remembering the people who died while serving in the country's armed forces. The holiday, which is currently observed every year on the last Monday of May, originated as Decoration Day after the American Civil War in 1868, when the Grand Army of the Republic, an organization of Union veterans founded in Decatur, Illinois, established it as a time for the nation to decorate the graves of the Union war dead with flowers. By the 20th century, competing Union and Confederate holiday traditions, celebrated on different days, had merged, and Memorial Day eventually extended to honor all Americans who died while in the military service. It marks the start of the unofficial summer vacation season, while Labor Day marks its end.
Many people visit cemeteries and memorials, particularly to honor those who have died in military service. Many volunteers place an American flag on each grave in national cemeteries.
Annual Decoration Days for particular cemeteries are held on a Sunday in late spring or early summer in some rural areas of the American South, notably in the mountain areas. In cases involving a family graveyard where remote ancestors as well as those who were deceased more recently are buried, this may take on the character of an extended family reunion to which some people travel hundreds of miles. People gather on the designated day and put flowers on graves and renew contacts with relatives and others. There often is a religious service and a picnic-like "dinner on the grounds," the traditional term for a potluck meal at a church. It is believed that this practice began before the American Civil War and thus may reflect the real origin of the "memorial day" idea.
Memorial Day is not to be confused with Veterans Day; Memorial Day is a day of remembering the men and women who died while serving, while Veterans Day celebrates the service of all U.S. military veterans.
1870 Decoration Day parade in St. Paul, MinnesotaThe practice of decorating soldiers' graves with flowers is an ancient custom. Soldiers' graves were decorated in the U.S. beforeand during the American Civil War. Following President Abraham Lincoln's assassination in April 1865, there were a variety of events of commemoration. The sheer number of soldiers of both sides who died in the Civil War (more than 600,000) meant that burial and memorialization took on new cultural significance. Under the leadership of women during the war, an increasingly formal practice of decorating graves had taken shape. In 1865, the federal government began creating national military cemeteries for the Union war dead.
The Richmond Times-Dispatch newspaper claimed in 1906 that Warrenton, Virginia, was the location of the first Civil War soldier's grave ever to be decorated; the date cited was June 3, 1861. There is also documentation that women in Savannah, Georgia, decorated Confederate soldiers' graves in 1862. The 1863 cemetery dedication at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, was, of course, a ceremony of commemoration at the graves of dead soldiers. In addition, local historians in Boalsburg, Pennsylvania, claim that ladies there decorated soldiers' graves on July 4, 1864, and Boalsburg promotes itself as the birthplace of Memorial Day.
Historian David W. Blight, citing an observance after the end of the Civil War in Charleston, South Carolina, on May 1, 1865, has claimed that "African Americans invented Memorial Day in Charleston, South Carolina," based on accounts in the Charleston Daily Courier and coverage by the New York Tribune. But in 2012 Blight stated that he "has no evidence" that the event in Charleston inspired the establishment of Memorial Day across the country. Accordingly, Snopes labels Blight's claims "mostly false."
Despite this ongoing lively debate, there is an "official" birthplace. On May 26, 1966, President Lyndon B. Johnson signed the presidential proclamation naming Waterloo, New York, as the holder of the title. This action followed House Concurrent Resolution 587, in which the 89th Congress had officially recognized that the patriotic tradition of observing Memorial Day had begun one hundred years prior in Waterloo, New York. Snopes also regards the Waterloo legend as apocryphal.
In the North
The Tomb of the Unknowns located in Arlington National CemeteryCopying a practice that began in the Southern states, on May 5, 1868, in his capacity as commander-in-chief of the Grand Army of the Republic, the veterans' organization for Union Civil War veterans, General John A. Logan issued a proclamation calling for "Decoration Day" to be observed annually and nationwide. It was observed for the first time that year on Saturday May 30; the date was chosen because it was not the anniversary of any particular battle. According to the White House, the May 30 date was chosen as the optimal date for flowers to be in bloom.
Memorial Day, Boston by Henry SandhamMemorial events were held in 183 cemeteries in 27 states in 1868, and 336 in 1869. The northern states quickly adopted the holiday. Michigan made "Decoration Day" an official state holiday in 1871 and by 1890, every northern state had followed suit. The ceremonies were sponsored by the Women's Relief Corps, the women's auxiliary of the Grand Army of the Republic (GAR), which had 100,000 members. By 1870, the remains of nearly 300,000 Union dead had been reinterred in 73 national cemeteries, located near major battlefields and thus mainly in the South. The most famous are Gettysburg National Cemetery in Pennsylvania and Arlington National Cemetery, near Washington, D.C.
Memorial Day speeches became an occasion for veterans, politicians, and ministers to commemorate the War and, at first, to rehash the "atrocities" of the enemy. They mixed religion and celebratory nationalism and provided a means for the people to make sense of their history in terms of sacrifice for a better nation. People of all religious beliefs joined together and the point was often made that the German and Irish soldiers had become true Americans in the "baptism of blood" on the battlefield.
Ironton, Ohio, lays claim to the nation's oldest continuously running Memorial Day parade. Its first parade was held May 5, 1868, and the town has held it every year since; however, the Memorial Day parade in Doylestown, Pennsylvania, predates Ironton's by one year.
In the South
Confederate Memorial Monument in Montgomery, AlabamaA Memorial Day holiday was in practice in the South since 1866. The U.S. National Park Service, as well as numerous scholars, attribute its beginning to the ladies of Columbus, Georgia. Originally called "Memorial Day," the Southern commemoration appended the label "Confederate" to the title when northerners co-opted the holiday in 1868.The tradition of observances which emerged in the South were linked to the "Lost Cause" and, they served as the prototype for the national day of memory embraced by the nation in 1868.
Specifically, on April 25, 1866, women in Columbus, Mississippi laid flowers on the graves of both the Union and Confederate dead in the city's cemetery. The early Confederate Memorial Day celebrations were simple, somber occasions for veterans and their families to honor the dead and tend to local cemeteries. By 1890, there was a shift from the emphasis on honoring specific soldiers to a public commemoration of the lost Confederate cause. Changes in the ceremony's hymns and speeches reflect an evolution of the ritual into a symbol of cultural renewal and conservatism in the South. By 1913, Blight argues, the theme of American nationalism shared equal time with the Lost Cause.
Historians acknowledge the Ladies Memorial Association played a key role in these rituals of preservation of Confederate "memory." Various dates ranging from April 25 to mid-June were adopted in different Southern states. Across the South, associations were founded, many by women, to establish and care for permanent cemeteries for the Confederate dead, organize commemorative ceremonies, and sponsor appropriate monuments as a permanent way of remembering the Confederate dead. The most important of these was the United Daughters of the Confederacy, which grew from 17,000 members in 1900 to nearly 100,000 women by World War I. They were "strikingly successful at raising money to build Confederate monuments, lobbying legislatures and Congress for the reburial of Confederate dead, and working to shape the content of history textbooks."
Soldiers National Monument at the center of Gettysburg National CemeteryThe ceremonies and Memorial Day address at Gettysburg National Park became nationally well known, starting in 1868. In July 1913, veterans of the United States and Confederate armies gathered in Gettysburg to commemorate the fifty-year anniversary of the Civil War's bloodiest and most famous battle.
The four-day "Blue-Gray Reunion" featured parades, re-enactments, and speeches from a host of dignitaries, including President Woodrow Wilson, the first Southerner elected to the White House after the War. James Heflin of Alabama gave the main address. Heflin was a noted orator; two of his best-known speeches were an endorsement of the Lincoln Memorial and his call to make Mother's Day a holiday. His choice as Memorial Day speaker was criticized, as he was opposed for his support of segregation; however, his speech was moderate in tone and stressed national unity and goodwill, gaining him praise from newspapers.
Since the cemetery dedication at Gettysburg occurred on November 19, that day (or the closest weekend) has been designated as their own local memorial day that is referred to as Remembrance Day.
Name and date
"On Decoration Day" Political cartoon c 1900 by John T. McCutcheon. Caption: "You bet I'm goin' to be a soldier, too, like my Uncle David, when I grow up."The preferred name for the holiday gradually changed from "Decoration Day" to "Memorial Day," which was first used in 1882. Memorial Day did not become the more common name until after World War II, and was not declared the official name by Federal law until 1967. On June 28, 1968, Congress passed the Uniform Monday Holiday Act, which moved four holidays, including Memorial Day, from their traditional dates to a specified Monday in order to create a convenient three-day weekend. The change moved Memorial Day from its traditional May 30 date to the last Monday in May. The law took effect at the federal level in 1971. After some initial confusion and unwillingness to comply, all 50 states adopted Congress' change of date within a few years.
Memorial Day endures as a holiday which most businesses observe because it marks the unofficial beginning of summer. The Veterans of Foreign Wars (VFW) and Sons of Union Veterans of the Civil War (SUVCW) advocate returning to the original date, although the significance of the date is tenuous. The VFW stated in a 2002 Memorial Day Address:
Changing the date merely to create three-day weekends has undermined the very meaning of the day. No doubt, this has contributed a lot to the general public's nonchalant observance of Memorial Day.
Starting in 1987 Hawaii's Senator Daniel Inouye, a World War II veteran, introduced a measure to return Memorial Day to its traditional date. Inouye continued introducing the resolution until his death in 2012.
Traditional observanceOn Memorial Day, the flag of the United States is raised briskly to the top of the staff and then solemnly lowered to the half-staff position, where it remains only until noon. It is then raised to full-staff for the remainder of the day.
Memorial Day observances in small New England towns are often marked by dedications and remarks by veterans, state legislators, and selectmen.The half-staff position remembers the more than one million men and women who gave their lives in service of their country. At noon, their memory is raised by the living, who resolve not to let their sacrifice be in vain, but to rise up in their stead and continue the fight for liberty and justice for all.
The National Memorial Day Concert takes place on the west lawn of the United States Capitol. The concert is broadcast on PBS and NPR. Music is performed, and respect is paid to the men and women who gave their lives for their country.
For many Americans, the central event is attending one of the thousands of parades held on Memorial Day in large and small cities all over the country. Most of these feature marching bands and an overall military theme with the National Guard and other servicemen participating along with veterans and military vehicles from various wars.
One of the longest-standing traditions is the running of the Indianapolis 500, an auto race which has been held in conjunction with Memorial Day since 1911. It runs on the Sunday preceding the Memorial Day holiday. NASCAR's Coca-Cola 600 has been held later the same day since 1961. The Memorial Tournament golf event has been held on or close to the Memorial Day weekend since 1976. The final of the NCAA Division I Men's Lacrosse Championship is currently held on Memorial Day.
In 2000, Congress passed the National Moment of Remembrance Act, asking people to stop and remember at 3:00 P.M.
PoppiesMain article: Remembrance poppyIn 1915, following the Second Battle of Ypres, Lieutenant Colonel John McCrae, a physician with the Canadian Expeditionary Force, wrote the poem, "In Flanders Fields". Its opening lines refer to the fields of poppies that grew among the soldiers' graves in Flanders.
In 1918, inspired by the poem, YWCA worker Moina Michael attended a YWCA Overseas War Secretaries' conference wearing a silk poppy pinned to her coat and distributed over two dozen more to others present. In 1920, the National American Legion adopted it as their official symbol of remembrance.
As civil religious holidayScholars, following the lead of sociologist Robert Bellah, often make the argument that the United States has a secular "civil religion" – one with no association with any religious denomination or viewpoint – that has incorporated Memorial Day as a sacred event. With the Civil War, a new theme of death, sacrifice and rebirth enters the civil religion. Memorial Day gave ritual expression to these themes, integrating the local community into a sense of nationalism. The American civil religion, in contrast to that of France, was never anticlerical or militantly secular; in contrast to Britain, it was not tied to a specific denomination, such as the Church of England. The Americans borrowed from different religious traditions so that the average American saw no conflict between the two, and deep levels of personal motivation were aligned with attaining national goals.
Memorial Day has been called a "modern cult of the dead". It incorporates Christian themes of sacrifice while uniting citizens of various faiths.
The old warning, “Don’t ever shoot ammo reloaded by anybody but yourself” has saved shooters a lot of grief over the years. Another should exist: “Be afraid of your own sloppy reloading habits.”Poor reloading habits seem to commonly fly under the safety radar. Most of the newer firearms available today are very strong, allowing small reloading mistakes to go undetected.Below are several of the most common issues that make “reloading” synonymous with “hazardous.” Avoid these, and you and your appendages are likely to survive to see many more years of shooting your favorite reloads.
Contributed by Cami Brasher (image: www.hobbygunsmith.com)
I am a 51 year old grandmother who has been reloading my cartridge ammunition for the last 30 years. The fact that I am female seems to surprise most people as reloading seems to be the last bastion of male dominance in firearms. So, Ladies, we need to learn to reload!
Over the years I have found that the extra time used to improve my family’s lot is not wasted time! I also comparison shop, make my own household cleaners, soaps and lotions, coupon like no one’s business and I work! I bet I am not the only one…
Still with me? If you are, then let’s talk about how to get started in reloading without spending a ton of money that no one has in this economy.
The most important step in learning to reload is to educate yourself on the process and on safety! Handling components without hurting yourself and others is of primary importance. If you are fortunate to have a spouse, brother or trusted friend who reloads, I would recommend asking them to let you watch and ask questions! Buy a good reloading manual and read about the subject before you ever touch a press. I like the Hornady Handbook of Cartridge Reloading, Nosler Reloading Guide or Hodgdon’s Annual Manual. I prefer these manuals because not all of the information you can find online is accurate. Once you know more about the process, then the internet can become a helpful resource. Always, always, always, use data that comes from a recent manual because reloading is changing faster than ever and new products are introduced all of the time. Any of the major manufacturer’s websites will also have useful data that is reliable and they have the laboratory equipment and testing capabilities, where as the guy on YouTube doesn’t have the facilities or the checks and rechecks. Always take the side of safety and use reputable resources and manuals!
Okay, now that you have educated yourself on reloading, what is the least expensive way to proceed? If you have a spouse, brother or friend who has a press and some serious experience, have them teach and watch you as you begin with one caliber and reload that successfully. As with anything else, the more you practice, the better you will get. Many of us do not know anyone who reloads, In that case check with local gun shops. Many of them offer reloading classes!
After you have become familiar with reloading, it’s time to begin to think about getting your own equipment, believe me you will know when you’re ready. These are the minimum that you will need to reload your favorite handgun.
Each of these may be purchased inexpensively if you shop around, since we are women that is a given. The major names in reloading presses are RCBS, Dillon, Lyman, and Lee. My current press is an old Lyman that a friend gave me. It is a four stage, single press that is hand cranked and allows me to quality control the entire process. I do not have a progressive press which can perform different operations on multiple cases although I have used several of them. Personally, I enjoy the process and for a single person I can make plenty of rounds in an hour. I would suggest you start with a single stage and keep it if you get a progressive, they are great for checking loads and reloading rifle rounds!
In addition to the equipment you will also need primers, powder, bullets and empty casings. You can pick up your empty brass and your friends at the range or you can buy them. As for primers, it will depend on the caliber that you are reloading. Powder is made by a bunch of different companies and again the powder you need will be determined by what caliber you are reloading. Check your manuals and then look around for powder either at a gun show or a shop that you trust. Both are still in short supply these days as are bullets, but they can be found if you are patient.
This may seem like a lot of trouble to go through but reloading is relaxing and feeds your inner nerd! It also confounds men and I get a perverse pleasure in doing that while saving money for more and better guns! I hope this helps many of you to decide to join the ranks of ladies who reload; I wouldn’t still be doing this if I didn’t enjoy it.
Credit - http://thewellarmedwoman.com
“STOP! DON’T TOUCH. RUN AWAY. TELL A GROWN-UP.”The Eddie Eagle GunSafe® program is a gun accident prevention program developed by a task force made up of educators, school administrators, curriculum specialists, urban housing safety officials, clinical psychologists, law enforcement officials and National Rifle Association firearm safety experts. It began in 1988 with one mission: teach children four simple, easy to remember steps so they know what to do if they ever come across a gun. In 2015 the NRA introduced a fresh, new Eddie and added some friends—his Wing Team. Though Eddie has evolved, his mission has not. In the brand new video, Eddie and his friends remind children that if they see a gun, they need to Stop! Don’t touch. Run away. Tell a grown-up.
You talk about stranger danger, Internet safety, fire drills and more with children...so why not include gun safety? The program makes no value judgments about firearms, no firearms are ever used, and it covers an important topic that needs to be addressed with kids. Like swimming pools, electrical outlets and matchbooks, firearms are simply treated as a part of everyday life. With firearms found in about half of all American households, it’s a stance that makes sense.
A special kid-friendly webpage, called The Eddie Eagle Tree House is also available. This experience allows children to discover Eddie’s video and lesson individually, or it provides an interactive element for groups and families to talk through together. Visit www.eddieeagle.com to learn more.
Neither Eddie nor any members of his Wing Team are ever shown touching a firearm, and there is no promotion of firearm ownership or use. The NRA does not make any sort of profit off the program, nor does it intend to. The goal of the Eddie Eagle GunSafe® program is to help prevent accidents and keep children safe.
MEET EDDIE EAGLE AND HIS WING TEAM
Maybe your child is a leader like Eddie. Maybe your son is a bit silly like Gary or an inquisitive Howie. Maybe your daughter is sweet like Maya or maybe she's got a good sense of humor like Fiona. We've created a team of fun and relatable characters to teach your children a very important lesson about gun safety. Learn more and interact with Eddie Eagle and his Wing Team at the Eddie Eagle Tree House.
Eddie EagleEveryone wants to be Eddie Eagle’s friend. Fun and safety are his top priorities. Eddie loves to play sports – basketball is his favorite! He learned safety rules from his dad, who serves on the city’s safety squad. Eddie is always looking out for his friends to make sure they stay safe. Nothing gets past his eagle eyes!
Fiona FalconFiona Falcon is the newest bird on the block. She just moved from the big city and met Eddie and his Wing Team when they invited her to play a game of basketball. Fiona makes everything fun and always knows how to make her friends laugh.
Howie HummingbirdHowie Hummingbird is always in everyone’s business because he never wants to miss out on any fun! Curious Howie has LOTS of questions. He sometimes sticks his beak where it shouldn’t be … mostly because he’s following his friend Gary. And of course he hums!
Gary GooseGary Goose is, well, a bit of a goof. He doesn’t always hear when his friends talk to him because he takes his video games with him everywhere he goes. Gary doesn’t get into trouble on purpose – he just has a way of finding himself in sticky situations.
Maya GuacamayaMaya Guacamaya (that’s Spanish for macaw) loves making new friends. Maya is so sweet and kind; giving hugs is her favorite way to say hello! Her family is from Costa Rica, so she is always trying to teach the group some new Spanish words.
Someone stopped by searching for “small caliber vs large caliber handgun.” Versus in what respect?Recoil? Grip size? Weapon size and weight? In general, a larger caliber cartridge almost forces one to go to a larger gun. If the larger caliber is to be restricted to small caliber recoil levels, there is little point in going to a larger bullet diameter in the first place. If grip size is to be kept down to something a normal human can handle magazine capacity will maximized with a larger caliber. All of those factors are reasonably obvious, so I will take that proverbial flying leap and assume the versus involves that all too mysterious factor called “stopping power.” OK – let’s put it like it is. Despite all the whoopty doo about stopping power, the weapon with the highest percentage of “first shot kills” is the lowly .22 long rifle. There are several reasons, the most important is that most shots are taken at contact or near contact range. Quite often at intruders, by suddenly awakened homeowners. Under near contact conditions a headshot from the .22 provides a more than adequate level of penetration and tissue destruction. Of course, that does not mean you should rush out and buy a .22 for your home protection weapon. If you miss an instantly fatal point, you may very well have an enraged assailant with enough life left to beat you to death! If you scroll down a few posts, you will find the results of ballistic tests on various calibers of handgun. Those tests are in 20% ballistic gelatin, which simulates muscle. They show the wound channel that results from shooting a .22 Long Rifle, a 9mm Winchester Black Talon, and a .357 Magnum into a block of gelatine. Here’s one more gelatin test for you, this time the .45 ACP. Watch the bulge at the top, and the action at the bottom of the block, as well as the wound channel: Obviously, the .45 will create a larger wound channel. More importantly, the shock waves radiating out from that wound channel will destroy nerves, blood vessels, and tissue some distance from the channel. So the .45 will do more tissue damage than the 9mm – but the nine may penetrate further in ballistic gelatin. So how critical is wound channel length? Well, let’s see. My head is 9 1/8ths inches fore to aft, max. Chest depth is 13 inches, mostly hollow. Abdominal depth is 14 inches. Given that most of that depth is less dense that muscle more than 12 inches in gelatin is likely to completely penetrate an assailant and exit the other side. So the .45 is definitely more than adequate in the penetration department. Both calibers are perfectly adequate for the job. But .45 will do more tissue damage, and impart more physical shock to the person shot than the 9mm will. So that leads us to an imponderable. How well can you shoot under stress? Most well trained people do surprisingly well. That does not mean that you will automatically roll out of bed, snatch your shooting iron from under your pillow, and center the head when it is too dark to use the sights. But if you have trained in snap or instinct shooting, you should be able to hit a head sized target in the dark at typical bedroom ranges. Hit – but not necessarily center that target. So the extra tissue destruction from the larger caliber becomes important. Everyone who looks at the basic set of facts will come up with a different answer. But I use a .45 as the first line of defense,
Posted on November 13, 2011 by Stranger
This “assault rifle” cartridge was adopted by Russia in 1943. It did not come into general use until after World War II, but the Russians now use it as their principal infantry small-arms cartridge. Original use was in the SKS semi-automatic carbine, later replaced by the AK-47 selective-fire assault rifle. This cartridge was adopted as the result of Russian military experience against German assault rifles chambered for the 7.92mm Kurz. Most military ammunition has a steel case and corrosive Berdan primer, but reloadable cases are now readily available. The M43 is a ¼-inch longer than the German 7.92mm Kurz and will give substantially better performance with newer powders. This cartridge has been loaded commercially by Federal, Winchester, Remington, and Black Hills with Boxer-primed reloadable cases. Better handloads and factory ammunition using soft-point bullets up to about 150 grains place this cartridge far ahead of any reasonable .30-30 load, in terms of delivered energy beyond 100 yards.
Gun Digest Editors
June 15, 2016
9mm vs. .40 Caliber. The FBI's decision to switch back to 9mm pistols and ammo is based on studies of wound ballistics and shooter performance.
Sydney Vail, M.D., FACS, is chief of the division of trauma surgery and surgical critical care and director of the tactical medicine program at the Maricopa Medical Center in Phoenix. He is also medical director of Tactical Trauma Immediate Response (Tac-TIR) Group, Cowtown, Peoria, AZ; director of the SWAT Tactical Medical Program for Arizona DPS; and a senior instructor for the International School of Tactical Medicine.
At the end of October, the FBI announced that it was planning to swap out the .40 S&W pistols and ammunition now used by its agents and replace them with 9mm pistols and ammo. This was a widely discussed decision, given that the Bureau once partially blamed the performance of 9mm cartridges for the deaths of two agents in the 1986 Miami shootout and subsequently transitioned to 10mm and then to .40 caliber sidearms. This is also a widely followed decision because the FBI's choice of duty pistol and ammo will likely influence many other law enforcement agencies to give the 9mm jacketed hollow-point another look. In the January 2013 issue of POLICE, I wrote an article titled "Stopping Power: Myths, Legends, and Realities," in which I discussed the wound ballistics performance of various popular pistol calibers as I have observed through my experience as a trauma surgeon and tactical medical specialist. My advice then and now is when it comes to claims about the effectiveness of handgun ammo, don't believe the hype. Instead, look at the hard facts. And now that the FBI's decision to go back to 9mm pistols has ignited another round of debate about caliber effectiveness, it's time to look at the real-world performance of 9mm and .40 S&W rounds in terms of wound ballistics.
Understanding Stopping Power
One of the least understood concepts in all wound ballistics is stopping power. So before we discuss the 9mm vs. .40 caliber in terms of wound ballistics, let's define the concept of "stopping power."I believe the definition of stopping power for law enforcement should be a particular ammunition's effectiveness to render a person unable to offer resistance or remain a threat to the officer, an intended victim, or self. So how does ammunition accomplish this? You have two options. You can use a really large round at very high velocity like the 30mm cannon rounds from an Apache helicopter's M230 Chain Gun, which produces substantial kinetic energy, or you can place your shot where it has the most effect. Obviously, shot placement is the only realistic option for a law enforcement officer. A handgun bullet shot into the shirtless torso of a person causes a degree of injury due to the body absorbing the bullet's energy and dispersing it in front of and around the path of the bullet. The projectile also tears through the tissue. This means that the kinetic energy of the bullet will create both a permanent cavity and to a much lesser extent a temporary cavity. But handgun ammunition only has acceptable stopping power if the bullet hits a vital structure that would "stop" the target from continuing the fight.
OK, let's return to our specific discussion of 9mm and .40 S&W ammo and look at some of the basic measurable differences between these two calibers of handgun rounds.
9mm .40 S&W
Diameter 9.01mm (0.355 inches) 10.2mm (0.4 inches)
Velocity 950-1,400 fps 900-1,449 fps
Expansion 0.36-0.72 inches 0.4-0.76 inches
There is no debate that for a handgun round to be as effective at incapacitating as quickly as possible, it has to either hit the brain stem, injure a significant amount of brain tissue, or cause extremely rapid exsanguination (hemorrhage). From a wound ballistics perspective, the diameter of the handgun bullet translates into the permanent cavity, the direct tissue impact or what is actually injured by the projectile as it passes through tissues. If there is a blood vessel that is injured, the larger the hole or injury relates to the volume of blood that is able to leave the vascular system in a period of time as to cause a significant enough loss of blood to make the blood pressure go down to cause the brain not to work as efficiently, then to cause the loss of coordination, which then causes the person to become a reduced threat and eventually lose consciousness...all over time.
In a head shot, the amount of brain tissue disrupted by a bullet produces varying degrees of incapacitation unless the brain stem is hit. So when comparing the 9mm to the .40 S&W, size is not a huge factor. If both expand to the maximum diameter based on bullet design, there is not a large enough difference to account for a larger degree of tissue injury; the difference between non-expanded bullets is small as well.
Penetration in living tissue is a guessing game for both of these rounds. Despite what many shooters believe, measuring penetration in ballistic gel—simulating muscle tissue—yields limited useful information about penetration in the human body, which is made up of more than just muscle.
There are too many variables to accurately predict what the actual depth of penetration will be inside a human body. I have found a wide variety of depths of penetration for both 9mm and .40 caliber rounds when operating or caring for gunshot patients.
More Rounds in the Mag
Our discussion now comes back to shot placement or wounding accuracy and the potential number of bullets required to increase or maximize the odds of injuring the body of a threat in such a way as to render that person incapacitated.
Shooting accuracy is affected by stress, but the effects of stress can be reduced through experience. To quote Bruce Siddle from "Sharpening the Warriors Edge," "stress is a matter of perception and perceptions can be changed through the training process." By training to deal with more stressful situations, and not training until you get it right but training so you don't get it wrong, you have a much better chance of accurate hits under stressful conditions.
In other words, shot placement—which is critical to prevailing in a gunfight—must be maintained under the most stressful of circumstances. Having more rounds in your pistol's magazine increases the potential for accurate shots. Hence the FBI chose to make the change to the 9mm round, which usually offers a higher round count per magazine, faster and more accurate follow-up shots, less perceived recoil, and very similar physical bullet characteristics to the .40 S&W.
From a trauma surgeon's perspective, both the 9mm and the .40 caliber can wound, injure, incapacitate, or kill. However, shot placement is the best predictor of accomplishing the intended goals. I have treated patients with more than 20 "holes" in them that never caused enough tissue damage or bleeding to cause them to die. And I have treated patients with a single "hole" that did die. Remember, the discussion is the ability of a particular ammunition caliber with improved bullet characteristics to stop a threat, not living or dying but simply to temporarily or permanently incapacitate the threat.
The FBI report of an officer-involved shooting on Nov. 29, 2006, from a Pennsylvania police department makes for an interesting read on this topic. The assailant was shot in the chest and abdomen with 180-grain
.40 S&W modern hollow-point ammunition as well as .223 rounds from an M4. On autopsy it was discovered he had been shot 17 times with 11 rounds exiting his body. Despite these many wounds, he struggled with officers attempting to handcuff him before he died.
Limitations of Ballistic Gel
There are people who will read this article who will maintain that the early works of Dr. Martin Fackler were written in stone when in fact he provided a significant amount of quality wound ballistics data but kept an open mind, understanding the limitations of simulants such as ballistic gel. This is best represented in an editorial he wrote about an article published in the Journal of the International Wound Ballistics Association, Winter volume 1991;10-13, by E.J. Wolberg.
The article in question was an autopsy study by a medical examiner on "torso only" shots with a retained bullet, noting that patients were excluded if bone was hit or there was over penetration. This data was compared to gelatin data for the 9mm 147-grain Winchester jacketed hollow-point. Gel demonstrated a 12- to 14-inch depth of penetration, and the autopsy findings (with the bullet only passing through soft tissue) of a 10- to 17-inch penetration. The author's conclusion: "Based on comparison of data from living tissue penetration by the 9mm 147-grain bullet with test shots of the same bullet into gelatin, it is concluded that gelatin can be a useful predictor of this bullet's penetration and expansion characteristics in shots in the human torso."
Dr. Fackler's editorial comment to this statement and study: "What Gene Wolberg has done here is what every clear thinking LE agency should be doing. Skepticism and meaningful comparison are the essence of common sense and all scientific thought….Don't believe that your tissue simulant is a good predictor just because some army lab or the FBI uses it and says so—check it out for yourself."
The obvious flaws in this study related to a gel-to-autopsy comparison was that if a bullet hit bone, it would invalidate the gel comparison; gel is a soft tissue simulant only. Also excluded were the outcomes of all victims; did they live, die immediately, or die later?
So when the FBI decided to change from the .40 to 9mm, it was likely done with significant testing, evaluation, consideration of actual wounds with degrees of injury sustained, degree of training needed to maintain accuracy of shot placement, as well as many other factors not yet available to the public.
Think of yourself under a stressful set of conditions using a weapon platform and ammunition that maximized your skill set and training; limited your recoil and made for faster, more accurate follow-up shots; and gave you higher magazine capacity so that you could minimize the chances of needing to do a physical manipulation to perform a tactical reload in the attempts to stop a threat.
The facts are clear; not every bullet entering a body will stop a threat. Major bleeding takes time, and the time to incapacitation is unpredictable unless the brainstem is hit or the heart is destroyed, and even then the person has 10 to 15 seconds of life left. More injuries to more structures gives an improved potential of incapacitation, and when they are accurate shots, the results are more predicted to have the intended outcome.
Credit- policemag.com. January 22, 2016 | by Sydney Vail, M.D.
Today, we will discuss about the bullet that is used for hunting a deer. There are many ranges and sizes of bullets that are used for hunting. .223 caliber bullets is one of the best and suitable for all types of deer hunting. Although many hunters do not like to use the type of bullet, this is still efficient.
Hunting deer is a very challenging and fascinating for the hunters. However, the hunters do require a good preparation for hunting deer and then enjoy the meat. But, hunting is not as easy as you shoot a deer in your video game. You can never imagine that hunting needs preparation and some quick decisions.
.223 caliber is preferred by the new hunters around the world because of the unique advantages during hunting. However, many parts of the world do not allow the hunters to use the cartridge to hunt a deer. For that reason, you must be sure that your state allows the hunter to use .223 caliber for deer hunting or not. Contact with neighbor hunters or hunters association of your estate to be sure about the cartridge use before purchasing a rifle.
But, these are some issues that you need to think first for choosing a caliber bullet for deer hunting-
Does it damage the animal’s body badly?Long bullets damage an animal body badly that you may not use the meat where you shoot. This is because of having a high amount of cartridge on the bullet.
But, .223 caliber bullets do not present you such kind of problem. In fact, you will not able to find the .223 caliber bullet on the animal’s body! The bullets are so sharp and powerful to go through the body and out at the end.
Can it interrupt oxygen production permanently?The caliber bullet that you have chosen must interrupt the entire oxygen production completely in a single bullet. You may not get time to shoot a deer again once you shoot on it once.
.223 caliber bullets are able to go through lung and heart of the deer and stop the oxygen production unit. As a result, there is no reason to shoot at it again because single bullet can make your hunting process successful.
Can you shoot it from a reasonable hunting range?While hunting a deer, you must keep a perfect distance from your targeted animal. Otherwise, it may be aware and run away from you. Therefore, your selected bullet type is also being fast and has good range to shoot.
A .223 caliber bullet comes to 75-90gr. Depending on your bullet choice. However, you can use this kind of bullet for 300-350 yards distance for hunting a deer.
Can you shoot & angle it comfortably?Of course, you must be comfortable at positing your rifle to the deer and shoot it for hunting purpose. Some caliber bullets require those rifles that you may not able to position comfortably.
As a result, your hunting experience will be painful without being successful. Generally riles for the .223 caliber bullet rifles are comfortable to use and it enables you to shoot from a suitable angle.
Cons of .223 Caliber
Pros of using a .223 caliber Rifle
Many hunters are looking for higher caliber for hunting now a day. But, a .223 caliber rifle is enough to give you perfect hunting experience for a deer. There are many advantages of using the .223 caliber rifle that are discussed here shortly:
.223 caliber vs 22-250 caliberIf you are willing to start hunting from the next season, you may not have any idea about .223 caliber and .22-250 caliber. But, you will hear many factors regarding these two calibers.
On the other hand, different hunters prefer different caliber for hunting a deer. You need to understand, which is the best caliber for your hunting career?
Therefore, here is a comparison table of .223 caliber vs .22-250 caliber for you-
Efficient for 300-350 yards distance
More efficient for longer distance than .223 caliber. Probably more than 400 yards distance
This is less expensive than .22-250
This is expensive to buy
Due to being inexpensive, gun stores often face shortage problem
Every gun store has good number of .22-250 calibers for hunters
Best for Practice Purpose
As .223 caliber is inexpensive, they are highly used for practice purpose.
.22-250 ammo is not suitable for practice purpose as it is expensive. However, if you can bear the expense of the ammo, 22-250 practice will be great for hunting experience.
Speed & Accurate
.223 is very accurate to its target but not shoots faster than .22-250
The accuracy depends on your skill on .22-250 rifles. However, it shoots faster and harder.
Almost 3428 fps
Nearly 4060 fps
Wind Influence Rate
Relatively low than .223 caliber
Now, you have the compare table between .223 caliber and .22-250 caliber. Therefore, this is easier to decide which caliber, you will choose for your hunting session.
Remember that .22-250 caliber is made for long distance shooting and hunting deer. Meanwhile, the .223 caliber is highly used for practice purpose, especially newbie to improve self confident.
Frequently Ask Questions about .223 CaliberMany people ask lots of questions about .223 caliber for hunting a deer. For that reason, we have make a list of the most common questions for you in order to give all answer in a fix site.
Question 1: Is it legal to use a .223 caliber for hunting a deer?
Question 2: How to I know my rifle is perfect for .223 caliber?
Question 3: Can I convert my .223 caliber gun to any other caliber?
Question 4: Will I face any problem if I use .22LR caliber instead of .223 caliber AR-15?
Question 5: Can I use 5.56 NATO caliber in my .223 AR-15 rifle?
Question 6: Can I use conversion kit for .22LR in my AR-15 Rifle?
Question 7: Do I need any steel for my .223 Caliber?
Question 8: How long anyone can hear the sound?
Question 9: From where I should shoot using .223 caliber?
My Experience in using .223 caliber for deer huntingAt the beginning time as a hunter, I used .223 caliber for deer hunting as well as practice hunting. Since it is easy to buy and inexpensive, I choose .223 caliber.
Normally, the caliber helps me to carry more rounds with me because of light weight. Two years ago, I have hunted my first deer with caliber .223 from a distance of 240 yards (probably).
However, after trying for several years, I have moved to another caliber cartridge because .223 caliber is not perfect for windy situation. Light weight bullets are easily influenced by wind and lost its accuracy.
In my 2 year experience using a .223 caliber for hunting deer, I have faced some problems with unique advantages. I did not need to spend high amount of money for caliber as well as feel no short of money for practice session.
Conclusion.233 caliber for hunting a deer is good choice for the hunters especially for newbie. Easy to find and low price is the best advantage of the caliber cartridge to the hunters.
However, you should practice with the caliber first, understand the cons of the caliber and then, decide about the caliber. So, buy 10-20 rounds of .223 caliber for practice and then, decide should you go with the caliber for hunting a deer or move to another caliber.
Credit - http://outdoorhill.com. Jimmy Chew
The .45 ACP (.45 Auto)
By Chuck Hawks
The famous .45 Automatic Colt Pistol cartridge was designed by John Browning in 1905 for a prototype service pistol. The U.S. Army tested both the pistol and cartridge and requested some changes, including a heavier bullet (the original weight was 200 grains). Browning changed the bullet weight to 230 grains and the .45 ACP as we know it today was born. The Army adopted both the cartridge and the Browning designed Colt pistol in 1911, and both are still going strong today. Among civilian shooters, the .45 ACP is more popular today than it ever was.
As one would expect, there are plenty of reloading components for the .45 ACP. The most popular bullet weights are 185, 200, and 230 grains. The correct bullet diameter is .452", maximum COL is 1.275", and the MAP limit is 21,000 psi. .45 ACP reloads must be taper crimped. Medium to fast burning pistol powders generally work best in the .45 Auto.
The impressive 200 grain Speer "Flying Ashtray" can be given a MV of 823 fps by 8.5 grains of HS6 powder, and a MV of 956 fps by 9.5 grains of HS6. A 200 grain bullet makes a pretty good general purpose load for the .45 ACP, just as John Browning originally envisioned.
The typical factory load for the .45 ACP uses a 230 grain bullet (either FMJ or JHP) at a published muzzle velocity (in a 5" barrel) of 850 fps with 370 ft. lbs. of muzzle energy. This load has a mid-range trajectory of .4" over 25 yards, 1.6" over 50 yards, and 3.7" over 75 yards. Beyond that the fat, slow bullet is falling pretty fast, but not many people can hit reliably at long range with a .45 auto anyway. The outdoorsman would be better off carrying something else.
The Speer Reloading Manual Number 13 shows that their 185 grain Gold Dot JHP bullet can be driven at a MV of 837 fps by 6.6 grains of W231 powder, and a MV of 954 fps by 7.4 grains of W231.
The Speer 230 grain TMJ ("ball ammunition") bullet can be driven at a MV of 773 fps by 7.8 grains of HS6 powder, and a MV of 863 fps by 8.5 grains of HS6. All of these Speer loads used Speer cases and CCI 300 primers, and were tested in the 4.4" barrel of a SIG pistol.
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